By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich
16 reference constructions were outlined through the U.S. division of power, and created as EnergyPlus enter documents, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and assisting the advance of strength codes in pursuing construction strength potency advancements. Infiltration charges within the EnergyPlus types of the reference structures have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in response to confirmed construction airflow concept. for you to aid extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, versions of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant delivery application CONTAM. a few extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM types, and adjustments within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the constructions. whereas the assumed infiltration premiums in EnergyPlus don't realistically mirror affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the outside air switch premiums calculated by way of CONTAM and climate. furthermore, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both technique are noticeable to have a massive influence at the air switch charges. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, risky natural compounds from indoor assets, outside particulate subject, and outdoors ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects supply an invaluable baseline for next use of those versions to enquire methods to development air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to concurrently lessen development strength intake whereas protecting or bettering indoor air caliber.
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Extra info for Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE References Commercial Buildings
5. Table 8 also shows that the Hospital and Medium Office have the highest indoor VOC concentrations. Because the VOC sources are area-based, the primary factor in determining the indoor concentrations are the outdoor air intake rates per unit floor area. The Hopstial and Medicum Office have the lowest values of the outdoor air intake per floor area, leading to the highest VOC concentrations. In contrast, the Primary School, Small Hotel, and Stand-Alone Retail have higher outdoor air intake rates per floor area, leading to lower indoor VOC concentrations.
This increase in outdoor air change rates is clearly observed in the plots of outdoor air change rate vs. ΔT (plots (b) of Figure 8 to Figure 11 and Figure 13b). No relationship is seen 19 between the system-on outdoor air change rates calculated using EnergyPlus and Ws (plots (b) of Figure 14 to Figure 19). ) and EnergyPlus (tight) models except for the Small Hotel (Figure 12b) and Stand-Alone Retail (Figure 13b). The dependencies on temperature difference and wind speed, however, were not affected.
Models) infiltration rates, the sensible load using the infiltration rates from CONTAM, and the ratios of the CONTAM infiltration sensible load to the EnergyPlus (tight and CONTAM-equiv. models) infiltration load. 6 In general, the infiltration sensible heating loads are greater than the cooling loads, whether calculated by EnergyPlus or CONTAM. This is to be expected since the simulations were performed using Chicago weather. The infiltration heating loads calculated using CONTAM are about two to nine times higher than the EnergyPlus (tight) results.