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Affect and Accuracy in Recall: Studies of 'Flashbulb' by Eugene Winograd, Ulric Neisser

By Eugene Winograd, Ulric Neisser

Memories of unforeseen and emotional occasions (called ''flashbulb'' thoughts) have lengthy been the topic of theoretical hypothesis. The fourth Emory Symposium on Cognition introduced jointly every body who has performed learn on thoughts of the Challenger explosion, that allows you to achieve larger realizing of the phenomenon of flashbulb thoughts: How do flashbulb stories evaluate with other forms of reminiscences? Are they surprisingly exact, or in particular long-lived? Do they mirror the job of a different mechanism, as has been urged? The ebook additionally addresses extra basic problems with have an effect on and accuracy: Do emotion and arousal develop reminiscence? if that is so, lower than what stipulations? by way of what physiological mechanisms?

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3. Frequency distribution of accuracy scores on the follow-up interview, spring 1989. 20. This result implies, of course, that the additional cues presented in the spring interviews had little effect on accuracy. Indeed, this was the case. 3. 75. Instead of a series of confidence ratings for the various attributes, the interview subjects estimated the "overall quality" of their memories on a 7-point scale. 30, ns). 565,/? 001) with confidence-T2 (average confidence on the fall questionnaires). 544 with confidence-T3, both highly significant.

Perhaps this is not surprising. Brewer had found high visual vividness ratings not only for correct recalls but also for those he termed wrong time slices, in which subjects seemed to be remembering (perhaps accurately) an inappropriate part of the overall event. In our scoring system, such reports would count as errors; hence their vividness would attenuate any correlation between visual vividness and accuracy. We will return to this possibility below. 510 with WAS-3/1). This result was unexpected (Brewer did not report the relation between auditory vividness and accuracy in his data), and it is difficult to interpret.

Second, a small group of "big news" and High Context Confidence (HCC) memories are singled out for special analysis. The body of research on flashbulbs had dealt with a very narrow range of events. The Kennedy assassination and the Challenger explosion have been studied extensively, with occasional studies of a few other political assassinations, the moon landing, and the Pearl Harbor attack. " More subjects would be preferable, of course, but with naturalistic events that cannot be controlled by the experimenter, data that permit generalizations across events are particularly necessary.

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