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Additional resources for A Guide to Transformer Maintenance
The MPD is then  (53) Knowledge of the MPD is useful for characterizing multimode fibers after sources, splices, connectors, etc. These effects are significant in short-haul LAN-type applications. 5 Multimode Distortion Whether derived by ray or wave methods, each mode has its own phase velocity and hence group velocity via Eq. (10). These mode delay differences vary with wavelength but exist even if a monochromatic source is used; they contribute to pulse distortion after passage through a length of fiber.
S-cm-diameter mandrel. (In an actual situation there will be only a few turns every few kilometers. ) The bending loss should not exceed 1 dB at 1550 nm or about a tenth of that at 1300 nm. Microbend losses are similar to numerous very closely spaced transition losses. They are very sensitive to the power spectrum of the curvature distribution, in terms of the spatial frequency n, often described as  $(n) = An - (40) Zp Here A and p are constants that differ greatly depending upon fiber environmental conditions: jacketing, cabling, temperature, etc.
We will now examine a second fundamental property of single-mode fibers, the mode diameter. 14 how the width of the mode decreased with wavelength. 2 Mode-Field Diameter For several types of single-mode fibers around 1300 nm, the modal power profile or near-field intensity pattern p(r) approximates a Gaussian p(r) = p(O) exp [ -2 (;J2] (24) where 2wo is the mode-field diameter (MFD). 5% level; moreoever, a fraction e- 2 of power resides beyond the MFD. 19 A step-index profile and a Gaussian mode field profile.